Restatement of Kozyrev’s “Possibility of Experimental Study of Properties of Time”
Based on [Unpublished article by N. A. Kozyrev: English title as above; Pulkovo, "O VOZMOZHNOSTI EKSPERIMENTAL'NGO ISSLEDOVANIYA SVOYSTV VREMENI", Russian, September 1967, pp 1-49]
This restatement is intended to benefit Astrologers who wish to know more about Kozyrev’s experiments and comments about the nature and properties of time, but who wish to avoid reviewing the many developmental experiments and calculations that led to his findings. There were also references to the work of other scientists which will be noted.
Part 1. Theoretical Concepts
Understanding the nature of time has occupied philosophers of antiquity, scholars in the Middle Ages and modern scientists. Their musings and experiments have proven fruitless, probably because time involves the most profound and unkown properties of the world. The exact sciences negate the existence of “time” in any terms except for the quality of “duration” or time intervals. The measurement of time is realized in hours and is seen as a spatial interval.
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity considered time intervals and space as components of a four-dimensional interval of a Minkowski universe. Minkowski defined his Universe as a model of three dimensions defined by X-Y-Z coordinates with a fourth dimension of time. This has also been described as a pseudo-Euclidian space with “time” added. Scientists tend to start with the most basic concepts, think deeply about them, and then add to them incrementally. This concept implies that time is scalar. This approach does not support a separation of the past and future, the causes are not separate form the results. Classical mechanics brings a strictly deterministic causality forward as the most important quality of the real world. This concept of causality is the basis of natural science. The natural scientist is convinced that the question “why?” is a legitimate one.
In the precise sciences, the legitimate question is “how?” By this is meant “how” a chain of occurrences takes place. Precise sciences are descriptive and occur within a four dimensional world. This world points to a possibility of predicting events, says Kozyrev. This is important to Astrologers.
“Directivity” is introduced in this paper but is not explicitly explained for the layman. It becomes clear through the many equations in this paper that “directivity” applies to moving forward or backward in time.
Kozyrev sees that the introduction of causal effects into a system will lead to an entrophy, or change of energy, and that the end result will thus be determined. This is better stated by Wikipedia, “The second law of the universal principle of entrophy , stating that the entrophy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.” These, and other statements, seem to be an introductory form of groundwork for the sequence of experiments that make up the bulk of this paper’s many pages. This particular statement is concluded with the notation that an isolated system will not have a directivity of time.
“Directivity of time” is not a quality of time itself but originates only as a property of the state of the system. For all of his words, Kozyrev comes to this conclusion, “Time becomes an active participant in the universe, eliminating the possibility of thermal death.” He comes back to the question of whether or how the directivity of time or its pattern can be introduced into the mechanics of elementary processes. He says, “In the constant quests for causes, the naturalist is guided rather by his own intuition than by fixed procedures. We can state only that causality is linked in the closest way with the properties of time, specifically with the difference in the future and the past. Therefore, we will be guided by the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: Time possesses a quality, creating a difference in causes from effects, which can be evoked by directivity or pattern. This property determines the difference in the past from the future. The requirement for this hypothesis is indicated by the difficulties associated with the development of the Leibnitz idea concerning the definition of the directivity of time through the causal relationships.
It is interesting to deviate from the paper’s flow in order to comment on “Leibnitz” as mentioned above.
Gottfried Leibnitz was a man of extensive knowledge in many fields. He was born on July 1st, 1646 at 6:15 PM LMT in Leipzig, Germany, 012e20, 51n19. A well known philosopher, mathematician, scientist, he imagined, created and used Infintesimal Calculus separate from Newton on Nov. 11, 1675. His precession corrected Solar Return for 1675 and the daily progressed angles chart’s transits for that November day are quite striking. His chart and data can be found in Astrodatabank for those interested. Leibnitz had developed a process of logic, the binary system and other concepts that much later led to modern-day computers. He also speculated about space and time. It is these general ideas that his predecessors of centuries past had already put in place that Kozyrev is honoring by mentioning them.
Kozyrev continues, “Let us now attempt, utilizing the simplest properties of causality, to provide a quantitative expression of hypotheses. 1 Proceeding from those circumstances in which: 1) cause is always outside of the body in which the result is realized and 2) the result sets in after the cause, we can formulate the next two axioms:
Axiom 2: Causes and results are always separated by space. Therefore, between them exists an arbitrarily small, but not equalling zero, spatial difference, et.
Axiom 3: Causes and results are separated in time. Therefore, between their appearance there exists an arbitrarily small, but not equalling zero time difference ët of a fixed sign. (Fixed sign refers here to the mathematical signs of the many equations he uses to support his statements.)
Here, Kozyrev comments on problems of relating Newtonian mechanics to time and then goes on to state that when we move to atomic mechanics the problems of Newtonian mechanics are resolved by virtue of having the opposite characteristics. Permit me to offer these two statements for clarification:
Newtonian mechanics can be seen through the example of the Moon orbiting the Earth, With no outside intervention, the Moon will continue to “fall” off of a straight-line motion such that it orbits about the Earth. If the Moon’s speed was to be suddenly diminished by us reaching out with a giant hand and slowing its motion, the Moon would slow, descend and impact the Earth.
Atomic interactions are different. Atoms are much like miniature planet systems, yet the orbiting electrons can jump to another orbit and change the nature of the atom – doing so not necessarily by a collision with another atom of particle but by a change in the frequency field or excitement levels in the space or area in which it is located. By this it is meant that a non-physical force, an energy field, can cause change within the atomic structure. It is important that we keep this in mind.
For Astrologers, the math and the details are not important at this point to attempt to explain other than a difference is introduced between the future and the past by virtue of the fact that there has to first be a cause or event, and only then can a result follow at some point. In other words, there has to be a space or break between the cause of the past and the result of the future. This is the basis for all of Kozyrev’s work, proving and defining this space or break in time. Kozyrev’s mind and grasp of both Newtonian and Atomic mechanics makes these conflicts clear to him and permits him to set up a series of experiments which are detailed in his extensive paper.
The reader is urged to have patience, as we will end up with several meaty concepts to consider relative to how we, as Astrologers, might view and use “time.” The math and observations Kozyrev makes in the early portion of his paper assures us that we are talking of an infinitely-small value of time, space or gap between a cause and a result --- an “empty” point situated between the material points which are linked to cause and to effect. His mathematics leads to something important for Astrologers, the fact that “time patterns” have a sense of linear velocity established by rotation. His experiments involved gyroscopes as rotational mechanisms, but their nature can be directly scaled to the Earth’s size and rotation. In fact, his formula and measurements prove the unity of Einstein’s theories, Newton’s laws, and the slightly ovoid or pear-shape of the Earth. This variation in Earth’s shape affects the planet’s rotation and orbit. We see this in terms of the Equation of Time adjustment needed in the calculation of astrological charts.
The appearance of “time” enters a system through the cause that is prior to the effect. The “cause” (whatever it may be) alters the rotation and, as a result, the “alteration” can be seen as a time pattern. This can create additional stresses in the system. The additional stresses alter the potential and the energy level of the system. These variations, again, produce the time pattern. From this it follows that time has energy. Since the additional forces are equal and are directed oppositely, the pulse of the system does not vary. This signifies that time does not have a pulse, although it possesses energy. From these statements I take it to mean that the “cause” is the pulse, and that the variations of energy are the basis of the time patterns Kozyrev refers to.
The Newtonian mechanics correspond to a world with infinitely stable causal relationships, while atomic mechanics represent another critical case of a world with infinitely real causal relationships. Equations indicate that the mechanics corresponding to the principles of the causality of natural science should be developed from the aspect of Newtonian mechanics, and not from the viewpoint of atomic mechanics. For instance, we can expect the appearance of quantum effects in macroscopic mechanics.
The theoretical concepts expounded here are basically necessary only in order to know how to undertake the experiments in the study of the properties of time. Time represents an entire world of enigmatic phenomena, and they can in no way be pursued by logical deliberations. The properties of time must be gradually explained by physical experiment.
Part II. Experiments on Studying the Properties of Time, and Basic Findings
The many experiments and measurements of Kozyrev and others relative to the concepts presented in Part I began in the winter of 1951—1952. In general, it is not necessary to review each of these experiments in a singular manner. It is enough for our purposes to note that working with the mechanics of gyroscopes and measuring the results of those experiments required on-going and exquisite refinement of both the physical properties and the measurements and mathematical applications. It was necessary to document each step so that work could be replicated later and checked.
Gyroscopic rotation and variations were measured through the use of weights and torsion. Early tests were developed to establish that the force of a causal pulse is always conserved within the system independent of the rotational condition of the gyroscope. A great number of mechanical problems had to be solved over time in order to eliminate bearing issues and external unwanted influences.
In this section of his paper, Kozyrev moved away from his gyroscopic and rotational experiments to focus on other phenomena related to energy transfer. As was earlier noted, energy plays an important role in atomic physics and energy fields can provide a causal effect within a mechanical system.
His experiments with energy transference involved the use of a source of energy and its outflow using a dipole (an antenna-like rod) in a rigid or torsion position. The energy field of a motor, for example, does influence a dipole just as one tuning fork can transfer sonic energy to another tuning fork such that it vibrates in sympathy with the first. Pendulums can also be used much as a dipole in these experiments.
So, Kozyrev showed that a motor force field acted much like a sonic field (as a very general statement) in that it could transfer energy to another structure such as a dipole or pendulum. The energy transfer could be measured, and did diminish over a distance. Kozyrev notes, “Repeated and careful measurements demonstrated that this effect diminishes, not inversely proportional to the square of the distance, as in the case of force fields, but inversely proportional to the first power of the distance.” In one experiment, the raising of a weight near a pendulum was sensed and reacted to by the pendulum as the weight neared it. The paper does not describe the experimental structure well enough for me to envision it or to better describe it.
I merely repeat what is described.
Kozyrev again notes, “The results obtained indicate that nearer the system with the causal-resultant relationship the density of time actually changes. Near the motor there occurs a thinning (rarefaction of time), while near the energy receiver its compaction takes place. The impression is gained that time is extended by a cause and, contrariwise, it becomes more advanced in that place where the effect is located.” Therefore, in the pendulum assistance is obtained from the receiver, and interference from the part on the motor.
Kozyrev makes this comment, “The effect of time differs basically from the effect of force fields.” He goes on to give a technical explanation of what happened in the above experiment to support this statement. He goes on, later, to say, “The transmission of energy without momentum (pulse) should still have the following very important property: Such a transmission should be instantaneous: i.e., it cannot be propagating because the transmission of the pulse is associated with propagation. This circumstance follows from the most general concepts concerning time. Time in the universe is not propagated but appears immediately everywhere. On a time axis the entire universe is projected by one point. Therefore, the altered properties of a given second will appear everywhere at once, diminishing according to the law of inverse proportionality of the first power of the distance. It seems to us that such a possibility of the instantaneous transfer of information through time should not contradict the special theory of relativity -- in particular, the relativity of the concept of simultaneity. The fact is that the simultaneity of effects through time is realized in the advantageous system of coordinates with which the source of these effects is associated. The possibility of communications through time will probably help to explain not only the features of biological relationship but also a number of puzzling phenomena of the physics of man. Perhaps instinctive knowledge is obtained specifically in this manner. It is quite likely that in this same way there are realized also the phenomena of telepathy: i.e., the transmission of thought over a distance. All these relationships are not shielded and hence have the property for the transmission of influences through time.
For astrologers, this relates to the topic of “synchronicity.” We can recall the work of Liebnitz, noted earlier, who imagined, developed and applied Infinitesimal Calculus in parallel to Newton. Ideas come into being and tend to propagate everywhere at the same time. We can also recall the axiom, “If you can imagine it, you can do it.” There are so many similar sayings recorded through history. Jane Roberts, the former channel for an entity called Seth, noted in her books and recordings of Seth’s statements that “Ideas gain power and thicken in time as the emerge into reality.” This is akin to Kozyrev’s findings about energy and how it changes at certain nexus points. He noted that even the positioning of a cement wall between the source of energy or the transmitter of that energy had no effect on the energy effect at the resulting or target position.
Kozyrev’s paper states, “These tests indicated the basic possibility of the effect through time of an irreversible process upon a material system. At the same time, the very low value of the forces obtained testifies to a certain constructive incorrectness of the experiment, owing to which there takes place an almost compensation of the forces originating in the system. As a result, only a small residue of these forces acts upon the system.”
While his experiments were always subject to the influences of temperature, humidity, external vibrations through ground and air, those experiments were also constructed to negate these influences either within the experiment itself or through secondary experiments. What seemed to be a constant observation in his many experiments that a small causal force always had a magnified resultant effect at some distance away from the energy source. While these effects diminish over distance, the fact remains that the effects are seen over significant distances. Kozyrev writes, “In essence, the tests conducted demonstrate that it is possible to have the influence through time of one process upon another. In reality, the appearance of forces turning the torsion balances alters the potential energy of the balances. Therefore, in principle, there should take place a change in any physical process which is associated with them.” Here, his reference to torsion balances is related to the weights associated with placement on dipoles and pendulums that made up his experimental constructions.
It was also found in his many experiments that the effects of energy introduced into a system persisted after the source of the energy ceased and only faded after a period of time as an affecting force. Based on the theoretical concepts and all of the experimental data, the following general inferences can be made:
1. The causal states, derived from three axioms, of the effect concerning the properties of a time pattern are confirmed by the tests. Therefore, we can consider that these axioms are substantiated by experiment. Specifically, we confirm axiom II concerning the spatial non-overlapping of causes and effects. Therefore, the force fields transmitting the influnces should be regarded as a system of discrete, non-overlapping points. This finding is linked with the general philosophical principal of the possibility of cognition of the world. For the possibility of at least a marginal cognition, the combination of all material objects should be a calculated set: i.e., it should represent a discrete state, being superimposed on the continuum of space.
As concerns the actual results obtained during the experimental justification of the axiom of causality, among them the most important are the conclusions concerning the finiteness of the time pattern, the possibility of partial reversal of the causal relationships, and the possibility of obtaining work owing to the time pattern.
2. The tests proved the existence of the effects through time of one material system upon another. This effect does not transmit a pulse (momentum), meaning it does not propagate but appears simultaneously in any material system. In this manner, in principle it proves possible to have a momentary relationship and a momentary transmission of information. Time accomplishes a relationship between all phenomena of nature and participates actively in them.
3. Time has diverse qualities, which can be studied by experiments. Time contains the entire universe of still unexplored occurrences. The physical experiments studying these phenomena should gradually lead to an understanding
of what time represents. However, knowledge should show us how to penetrate into the world of time and teach us how to affect it.
Again, I note that this writing reflects my understanding of what Kozyrev wrote in his paper. Portions of it may be stated wrongly, or my assumptions of its importance to astrologers may be wrong. I offer it only as a sincere effort to make it more readable for discussion and consideration by others.
Dave Monroe, Feb. 2010